A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins of the scrotum and can cause pain and decreased sperm motility, which can reduce male fertility. In the past, surgery was a patient's only choice, which is painful and has a 10-20% chance of recurrence. Varicocele embolization has been available as an alternative approach to treatment for many years. It is performed without surgery, with a small catheter (tube) inserted into the vein at the top of the leg using local anesthetic and sedation. The procedure is painless and may be done as an outpatient. Normal activity can be resumed the next day. Not only is embolization a very effective treatment for new varicoceles, it is an excellent option for those who have had previous varicocele surgery and now have a recurrence.